As our understanding of the world is constantly growing and expanding, so is the nature of film industries in terms of production and distribution. The shift in global film cultures has resulted in the emergence of transnational film industries, which break down the traditional geographical barriers. Both transnational and global film industries are hybrids of numerous cultures, nations and creative minds, therefore producing a melting pot of interpretations and representations.
As there are an increasing number of films attracting international markets, the films being produced can no longer be identified with a specific nation. Films are now being shot in a number of different countries, and are therefore mixing both global and local elements in order to appeal to audience tastes and trends (Schaefer & Kara 2010). On top of this, film industries are also becoming more reliant on multinational cast and crew, and other resources available to them.
A clear example of a transnational film is the Academy Award winning ‘Slumdog Millionaire’. Set and filmed in India, the film follows the story of a teenage boy who appears on the Indian adaptation of a Western game show ‘Who Wants To Be A Millionaire’. Throughout the film, aspects of Western culture were referenced as a way of targeting Western audiences. Along with the Indian adaptation of the game show, the film’s tourist scene was set at the Taj Mahal, which is considered to be one of the most recognisable landmarks in India for Westerners. The cast and crew of the film also add transnationality as they were a mixture of both Indian and Western.
According to David Schaefer & Kavita Kara (2010), “Asian film industries, particularly those of India and China, will wrestle control of global film flows from Western dominance”. In order to achieve this, it is believed that Asian production centers will utilise mediums, such as the internet, satellite networks, cable television and DVD distribution, to exploit cinematic contraflows as a way of meeting the demands for glocalised content.